Sebastian Polter’s early goal gave QPR the lead at Deepdale.The German striker, left unmarked at the far post, headed home Alejandro Faurlin’s fifth-minute corner.Rangers have since defended well, although Jordan Hugill had a chance to equalise for Preston when he headed over from Greg Cunningham’s cross.Jamie Mackie returned to the QPR starting line-up, coming in for Matt Phillips, while Grant Hall is on the substitutes’ bench having recovered from a foot injury.QPR: Smithies, Onuoha, Angella, Hill, Perch, Faurlin, Henry, Mackie, Chery, Hoilett, Polter.Subs: Ingram, Hall, Tozser, El Khayati, Washington, Luongo, Petrasso.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
16 November 2005A consortium led by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed a new system that pasteurises raw eggs to destroy the dangerous Salmonella enteritidis bacteria – and could kill the virus that causes avian influenza.Salmonella can cause potentially lethal diarrhoea and is a major concern for the restaurant trade, which uses raw eggs in puddings and sauces.With increased restrictions on feed antibiotics administered to chickens, the incidence of salmonella is rising. Many countries have recently had to take measures to contain salmonella outbreaks.The World Health Organisation reports that 40% of food poisoning cases in Europe are a result of infected eggs. In Africa, the higher incidence of HIV can make the consequences of salmonella poisoning more serious in immune-compromised individuals.To tackle the problem the research consortium pooled the skills of the CSIR, the University of Pretoria, Delphius Technologies and Eggbert Eggs, the country’s second largest egg producer. Financial support came from South Africa’s Innovation Fund.The process works with low-frequency microwaves and hot air, says Nell Wiid, managing director of Eggbert Eggs. The eggs are placed in a specially designed microwave oven and are heated to between 50°C and 70°C, killing the salmonella bacteria without cooking the eggs.Pasteurised eggs are sold in the US, but they cost up to three times more than untreated eggs, says Wiid. Moreover, the US system uses an impractical water-bath technique that partly cooks the egg white.The South African technique requires a specially designed oven cavity and phased process developed by Delphius Technologies, specialists in the development of industrial microwave ovens. The consortium is seeking an international patent for the ovens and processes.“The most difficult part of the project optimising the heating curve and identifying hot spots,” says Wiid. “Eggs vary in shape, mass, position of the yolk and heating profile and the microorganisms are sensitive to many of these variables.”The bird flu threatBy the time the consortium’s work had produced results, warnings by the World Health Organisation on bird flu led the team to expand its research to include testing on a low-virulence strain of the avian flu virus.“Preliminary results from these trials indicate that the new pasteurisation technology also destroys the avian influenza pathogen,” says Dr Gatsha Mazithulela, the CSIR’s executive director for biosciences.“While all indications are that South Africa is currently free of avian flu, we are encouraged by these results and by the future potential of this technology as one possible preventative measure.”From December South African consumers will be able to buy pasteurised eggs – clearly marked as “Safe Eggs” and “Pasteurised Eggs” – from supermarkets. They will cost about 8c more than unpasteurised eggs. The eggs also have an extended shelf life of at least double that of unpasteurised eggs, and can be kept for up to six weeks at 18°C to 22°C.Huge international interest in the technology has taken Wiid to Belgium and France, and he is optimistic that South Africa could significantly benefit from this innovation.SouthAfrica.info reporter Want to use this article in your publication or on your website?See: Using SAinfo material
The Reserve Bank and the National Treasury form the monetary authority in South Africa. The Bank has a significant degree of autonomy in terms of SA’s Constitution, although it holds regular consultations with the minister of finance.The Reserve Bank has a significant degree of autonomy in terms of South Africa’s Constitution. (Image: SARB, via Flickr)Brand South Africa reporterThe South African Reserve Bank (SARB) and the National Treasury (the Ministry of Finance) together constitute the monetary authority in South Africa.South Africa’s central bank was established in 1921 in terms of a special Act of Parliament.FunctionsThe primary object of the South African Reserve Bank is to protect the value of the currency in the interest of balanced and sustainable economic growth in the Republic.The SARB acts as the central bank for the country and its banking institutions, is co- responsible for formulating South Africa’s monetary policy, and is largely responsible for implementing this policy.The Reserve Bank has a significant degree of autonomy in terms of South Africa’s Constitution and performs its functions independently, although it holds regular consultations with the minister of finance.The SARB sees it as essential that South Africa has a growing economy based on the principles of a market system, private and social initiative, effective competition, and social fairness. It recognises the need to pursue balanced economic policies that enhance both development and growth.The Bank is managed by a board of 14 directors representing commerce, finance, industry and agriculture. Seven directors are elected by the Bank’s shareholders. The President of South Africa appoints the governor, three deputy governors and three other directors to the board.The SARB’s management, powers and functions are governed by the South African Reserve Bank Act of 1989.Monetary policyThe Reserve Bank implements South Africa’s monetary policy and regulates the supply (availability) of money by influencing its cost.Monetary policy is set by the Reserve Bank’s monetary policy committee, which works within a flexible inflation-targeting framework.The Bank undertakes national and international transactions on behalf of the state, and acts for the government in transactions with the International Monetary Fund.The Bank is the custodian of the greater part of South Africa’s gold and other foreign exchange reserves.SubsidiariesThe Reserve Bank controls the South African Mint Company, and issues banknotes printed by the South African Bank Note Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank.Find out moreVisit the Reserve Bank’s website, where you will find information on legislation, the bank’s mandate, monetary policy, inflation targeting and reserves management.Also see our article on South Africa’s National Treasury, or visit the National Treasury’s website.Reviewed: 28 January 2013Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.