University of Georgia, state and industry leaders cut the ribbon on Sept. 21 signifying the official openings of three new turfgrass research and education facilities on the Griffin, Tifton and Athens campuses. The largest of the facilities is on the UGA Griffin campus, where the ceremony took place.During the 2014 legislative session, Gov. Nathan Deal and the Georgia General Assembly appropriated funds for the statewide turfgrass facilities enhancement project. “The University of Georgia remains very grateful to Gov. Deal, the General Assembly, the chancellor, and the board of regents for their support of this important project,” said UGA President Jere W. Morehead. “The construction of new turfgrass research and education facilities will produce tremendous benefits not only for the university community but also for the agriculture industry, which is central to the state’s economy.” UGA has 22 scientists whose primary responsibilities are related to turfgrass and another eight faculty members who have some involvement in turf-related projects. They support the turfgrass industry by conducting research, educating industry professionals and training students who will become future industry leaders. The new Turfgrass Research Building in Griffin sits close to the campus’s turfgrass research plots. The building houses seven turfgrass scientists, their staff, postdoctoral research associates, visiting scientists and graduate students. The facility includes modern laboratories, offices, conference and classroom space and attached greenhouses. “Even though we have an excellent team, our buildings and greenhouses were old. Now we have state-of-the-art facilities, and the team can all be located in the same building,” said Paul Raymer, a Griffin-based UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences professor and turfgrass breeder. “Entomologists, plant pathologists, agronomists and support staff were scattered across campus in six or seven buildings. Now we can work together in a facility specifically designed to support our turfgrass research program.” On the UGA campus in Tifton, old facilities have been replaced with new greenhouses and a headhouse facility to support UGA’s expanding warm-season turf breeding program. On the main UGA campus in Athens, scientists now have new greenhouses and a combination classroom and office complex to use for undergraduate teaching and research programs.“These world-class facilities will enhance UGA undergraduate and graduate education programs, enable our turfgrass scientists to conduct cutting-edge research, and enable the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences to retain and recruit the top turfgrass scientists necessary to ensure a prosperous future for the vital Georgia turfgrass industry,” said CAES Dean and Director Sam Pardue. UGA-bred turfgrasses cover lawns, championship golf courses, urban green spaces, and major and little league playing fields in Georgia, across the nation and around the world. Since 1990, the UGA Turf Team has generated close to $12 million in royalty income. Turfgrass is a $7.8 billion industry in Georgia, accounting for 87,000 jobs. For more information on UGA’s turfgrass programs, visit www.GeorgiaTurf.com.
An accurate and effective intelligence system is an essential condition for the success of the pacification force. To provide this, an intelligence center was established, led by an intelligence officer (D/2), and staffed with personnel from the intelligence section of the Infantry Paratrooper Brigade and intelligence and counterintelligence reinforcement elements from the Army Intelligence Center (CIE for its Portuguese acronym). It was essential for the command of the pacification force to hold periodic meetings with representatives from the intelligence agencies of the State of Rio de Janeiro Department of Public Security, the Federal Police, Civil Police, and Military Police in order to establish personal ties of mutual trust and technical channels for the sharing, analysis, and dissemination of information. In the irregular, asymmetric conflicts of the 21st century, the use of special operations forces and conventional paratrooper and airborne forces able to intervene swiftly and effectively as contingency forces in crisis and conflict situations has been increasingly common. The 82nd Airborne Division, 101st Airborne Division and 173rd Airborne Brigade of the United States, as well as the 16th Air Assault Brigade of the United Kingdom had leading roles in operations to combat groups of violent extremists in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as France’s 11th Paratrooper Brigade, which was active in Afghanistan and Mali. In conducting enforcement actions through the use of ground combat power, normally during joint actions to neutralize opposing forces, it is imperative that pacification forces be able to plan and execute operations against irregular forces in urban and rural environments. 4 PINHEIRO, Gen Bda Alvaro de Souza. Irregular Warfare: Brazil’s Fight Against Criminal Urban Guerrillas. Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) Report 09-8, September 2009. p. 17. 3 LEALI, Francisco. “Conexão Líbano-Brasil: traficantes ligados ao Hezbollah se associaram à facção que atua em presídios paulistas.” O Globo, Rio de Janeiro, Domingo 09 Nov, 2014. p. 3. 10 Name used by the U.S. Marine Corps. The U.S. Army uses the name Company Intelligence Support Teams. During operations against irregular forces, one of the main goals is to provide security for the population in order to separate it from opposing forces and ensure an environment free of violence and terror. People are not the means to the goal — they are the goal. Intelligence The use of 12-gauge shotguns and 38.1 mm grenade launchers provided flexibility in the use of non-lethal ammunition, particularly in riot control operations, which often occurred when arrests were made in the midst of the population. Image intelligence (IMINT) was obtained by means of satellite images, through helicopter surveillance, and via the Brazilian-made CARCARÁ II, a remotely piloted aircraft system from the Marine Operating Group. Signals intelligence (SIGINT) was obtained by the pacification force’s Electronic Warfare Cell, which intercepted signals, and by patrols who seized radio equipment from “scouts” 1 3 and monitored gang communications, enabling them to collect valuable information, such as positions, routines, plans, ways of operating, and alert signals when troops got near. In addition to being part of the Brazilian Army’s Strategic Operations Forces, the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade and 12th Airborne Light Infantry Brigade constitute strategic rapid response forces because they have the ability to respond quickly and project force into any part of Brazilian territory and its strategic surroundings. It is for these same reasons that the best armies in the world initially deploy their paratrooper units to be used as expeditionary forces. In the early 1990s, the Red Command influenced the creation of the First Capital Command in São Paulo, a criminal organization whose involvement with the terrorist group Hezbollah in the tri-border area between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay since 2006 has become increasingly more evident following new investigations by the Federal Police 3. A strategic area survey that had been drafted and updated in prior years greatly facilitated the planning and execution of the peace keeping operations in Maré before potentially deploying the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade in that area of operation. However, due to the culture of conventional combat intelligence focused on the enemy (enemy-centric intelligence), the lack of prior research on the human terrain had to be compensated for after the start of operations through special reconnaissance operations by the Special Operations Task Force and through the work of the Information Support Operations Detachment (DOAI, for its Portuguese acronym), the civil-military cooperation cell, and the intelligence sections of the pacification force, the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade Task Forces, and the Marine Operating Group. This underscores the importance of having human terrain teams that are integrated with civilian specialists and subordinate to an intelligence operations cell. This article analyzes the phases of planning, preparation, and employment of the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade in the pacification of the Maré slum complex in Rio de Janeiro, and presents the main lessons learned and the results of the operation. Moreover, it examines the impact on the organization, equipment, and deployment policy of Brazilian Army infantry brigades, highlighting the importance of preparing for operations against irregular forces in urban and rural environments. OPERATION PLANNING The operation began with the interdiction of all access points on the perimeter of the Area of Operations by installing checkpoints, followed by deploying the rest of the troops on foot and in vehicles in every street, alley, and lane to replace the PMERJ units and effectively occupy the Area of Operations with Pacification Force elements. Operating in a complex and hostile environment, the Brazilian Army’s paratrooper unit successfully completed the mission it was given. Its professional soldiers imposed and maintained law and order, won the support of the local population, and dismantled heavily armed gangs, creating a secure and stable environment that enabled people and civilian agencies to move and act freely. Equipment Operations against irregular forces include: interdiction operations with external support; operations to control the population and local resources; police-type operations; operations to restore basic infrastructure and humanitarian assistance; combat operations including counterinsurgency, antiterrorism (defensive actions of a preventive nature); and counterterrorism (offensive actions of a repressive nature performed exclusively by Special Operations Forces). Based on the successful actions of the Peace Keeping Operations Special Operations Detachment of the Brazilian Battalion in Haiti, a special operations task force was used for the first time as a peace keeping force, only confirming the suitable technical-professional preparation and the force-multiplying effect of these specialists in irregular warfare. Led by the commander of the 1st Special Forces Battalion and composed of Special Forces members, commandos, snipers, experts in support information, and vanguard paratrooper units (pathfinders), the task force carried out direct and indirect actions to fulfill its mission. In 1994 and ’95, the Brigade was deployed during “Operation Rio” with Army Infantry Battalion and Air Force reinforcements due to increased violence in the hills and other districts of the city that created an unsafe climate provoked by drug traffickers and various gangs that frequented funk dances, used drugs, and instigated looting. An example of a very successful direct action was the interagency search-and-seizure operation to capture one of the most sought-after gang leaders. Obtaining the gang leader’s precise location through an informant, the pacification force used the Mechanized Cavalry Squadron to surround an area of buildings in a quick surgical strike while a tactical team, reinforced by Federal Police from the Tactical Operations Command broke into the apartment and arrested two armed criminals without causing collateral damage to the two female minors that were with them. Just like the unorthodox use of Team Tank – a squadron of M1 Abrams tanks that supported the actions of the U.S. Special Operations Task Force in western Iraq in 2003 1 7 – the use of the Mechanized Cavalry in support of the task force demonstrated the seamless integration, coordination, and synchronization that must exist between conventional forces and Special Operations Forces. 8 U.S. Department of the Army. Field Manual 3-24.2. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. Washington, D.C., 2009. p. 3-17. RESULTS OF THE OPERATION Paratroopers assumed the same leading role when the Brazilian Army was deployed to combat extremist violence in the 1960s and ’70s and crisis situations involving public security in various states of the Brazilian federation caused by the absence, insufficiency, or unavailability of state law enforcement agencies. Historically, the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade has been the first unit deployed to fulfill these missions, as provided for in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil. Employment doctrine A military force must not be required to move itself daily to an area it is protecting – on the contrary, it must live among the population which it is to defend. For this to happen, the ideal situation would include deploying company operation bases within their sub-sectors. Due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable facilities whose owners would not be afraid of reprisals, the pacification force was able to deploy only one company of Marines inside its sub-sector. However, the existence of Army and Air Force barracks within and in the vicinity of the Area of Operations provided bases that were safe and relatively comfortable for the Troops. The pacification of the Maré complex was planned and executed as a broad-range operation within a very complex, unstable, and uncertain operating environment. The planning emphasized intelligence operations, special operations, information operations, interagency operations, and operations against irregular forces in an urban environment. -Max G. Manwaring (Ph.D. in Political Science), U.S. Army War College. In April 2014, after several attacks on Police Pacification Units (UPP, for its Portuguese acronym) produced countless deaths among the military police and damages to their facilities, equipment, and vehicles, the Paratroopers were once again the first to be deployed for the difficult mission of pacifying Maré, the largest complex of slums in Rio de Janeiro. Consisting of 15 communities and a population of about 140,000 inhabitants, equivalent to a medium-sized Brazilian city, the inhabitants were terrorized by the violent actions of three rival criminal gangs that use the tactics, techniques, and procedures of violent extremist groups such as the Red Command, the Third Pure Command, and the militias. USE OF TROOPS Organization The informational terrain is as important as the physical and human terrain. The people’s perception of reality is of paramount importance. To control the narrative you must not only communicate well, but communicate first 1 9. To do this, the commanders must be proactive and cannot be restricted in their contact with the media, whose constant presence and ability to broadcast immediately has a marked influence on contemporary military operations. According to Colonel Mansoor, Commander of the Ready First Brigade in Iraq, “To request approval for each and every message up and down the chain of command is a sure recipe for failure.”2 0 On the other hand, it’s important not to trivialize the use of the Brazilian Army in police-type operations to guarantee law and order, misrepresenting its core competency as an armed force that executes combat operations. It is the ability to conduct operations against irregular forces that differentiates the Army from the police and that ensures the success of pacification operations. It is possible to pose doctrinal questions about whether Brazilian criminal gangs, which don’t seem to have political or ideological motivations, can be considered irregular forces, but it’s impossible to deny that they use the same tactics, techniques and procedures as guerrillas and terrorists. As a result, when ground forces are used in peace keeping operations, it’s necessary to confront them and defeat them by executing combat operations against irregular forces. 9 BRAZIL Estado-Maior do Exército. EB20 Campaign Manual-MC-10,217. “Operações de Pacificação ”. 1. ed., 2015. pp. 2-10, 2-11 and 5-19. The historical root of this is the origin of the Red Command, a criminal organization that descended from the Red Phalanx, formed in 1979 in the Cândido Mendes prison on Ilha Grande, in Angra dos Reis. In the early 1980s, after years of living together with terrorists, prisoners that escaped Ilha Grande began to rob numerous banks, businesses, and jewelry stores, putting into practice the teachings of terrorist Carlos Marighella, who wrote the Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. Drawing from the Brazilian experience in Operation Archangel, the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade established the role of these cells in all of the operational companies in the Maré Pacification Force, since smaller units immersed in the human terrain are better able to obtain data. Starting on April 5, 2014, the mission of the Maré Pacification Force was to seize the entire Maré Area of Operations using ground, motorized, and mechanized forces, replacing Rio de Janeiro’s State Military Police (PMERJ) who were operating in the area, and conduct operations to pacify the Maré Area of Operations in conjunction with other security and public order agencies, as well as other civilian agencies (governmental and nongovernmental). The goals were to protect the population; prevent and subdue gang activity; arrest its members; and seize weapons, ammunition, drugs, and other illicit materials 5. Unlike conventional combat operations, the pacification force does not depend greatly on the intelligence agencies of the ground force’s upper echelons. The pacification force received about 90% of its valid intelligence from the subordinate echelons, according to data obtained by the company intelligence cells. Informants were another important source, communicating through personal contacts, through WhatsApp or through a pacification call-in line deployed by the pacification force. “Although differences between gangs and insurgents regarding motives and modes of operations exist, this linkage infers that third generation gangs (3G2) are mutated forms of urban insurgency.” 1 The use of the Eagle Eye System (FLIR), from Army Aviation allowed the pacification force’s operations base to monitor the various operations carried out by the troops in real time, ensuring situational awareness and making the command’s decision-making process easier. The ability to generate thermal images from the Navy’s HS-1 Seahawk and the Army’s HA-1 Esquilo (Squirrel) made it possible to clearly identify individuals armed with rifles and pistols during the night shift inside the Area of Operations. The intelligence cell, composed of the company’s second-in-command and the sergeants in the command section, coordinated the platoon and squad data collection efforts by conducting briefings as patrols departed from and returned to the company base, preparing themselves to routinely give brief updates to the company commander and S/2 in their subsection 1 2. From November 2010 to February 2011, in the face of another public security crisis in Rio de Janeiro, which was soon to host a series of major international events, the Brigade was the first unit deployed in “Operation Archangel” in the Alemão and Penha slums, a pacification operation that would last 583 days. After occupying the sectors they were responsible for, each part of the maneuver initiated intense daytime and nighttime foot, motorized, and mechanized patrols, in addition to installing fortified positions in strategic places and checkpoints to screen vehicles and people. Constantly changing the itineraries and timetables of the patrols, combined with other tactics prevented established routines and allowed the element of initiative and surprise. Using inflatable boats on the eastern edge of the Area of Operations, the 1st Paratrooper Combat Engineer Company and the Special Operations Task Force maintained permanent surveillance and maritime patrols of the canal that leads to the Bay of Guanabara in order to suppress the entry of weapons and drugs. The constant presence and deterrent posture of the Troops on the streets, mostly on foot patrols, reduced the gangs’ freedom to act and also helped win the support of the people, who, consequently, provided more information. Various social action events were held to alleviate the population’s mistrust and initial discontent with the Army’s presence. Sniffer dogs from the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade and from the PMERJ’s Canine Action Battalion were used on several sweep operations in order to find arms and drugs caches. Attack dogs were also employed to assert a dissuasive effect in riot control operations. The importance of indirect actions – typical of Special Forces – needs to be emphasized in winning the active support of the population. Among these, the most important include getting advice from the Special Forces Operational Detachment, the pacification force command’s DOAI, and the section commanders connected to various civil agencies, as well as holding command area meetings. Local leaders know who is in charge and would feel disrespected if a commander habitually sent a subordinate to talk with them. Through personal contact, commanders were able to better understand the customs, trends, aspirations, and behavior of the population, and thus predict their actions. Often, these contacts also provided valuable reports. 17 JONES, Robert W. Team Tank Armor in support of Special Operations. Veritas: Journal of Army Special Forces History, Winter 2005. pp. 69-73. In: GORDON, Michael R.; TRAINOR, Bernard E. “Iraque: Um Conflito Polêmico ”. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército, 2010. p. 446. In order to exploit the elements of surprise, offense and deterrence – characteristics unique to paratroopers – a preliminary night action was planned with air-to-ground infiltration so skydiving units (HALO) could position a vanguard team within the Maré slum, but conditions were not suitable to execute it. The intent of the brigade commander was to maximize intelligence, special operations, and information operations; use offense, surprise, and bulk force; establish fortified positions; conduct ground, motorized, and mechanized saturation patrols; conduct sweeps; search and seizure; and win the support of the area’s population –the operation’s center of gravity– in a coordinated, integrated, and synchronized effort of interagency operations. The end goal was to suppress or reduce the criminal gangs’ freedom to act and to establish and maintain a secure and stable environment for the area’s population 6. Extremist violence is the result of the beliefs and actions of individuals or groups that use violence to achieve political, ideological, social, ethnic, or religious objectives. It includes insurgency, subversion, terrorism, and other forms of common violence 2. Irregular forces constitute the armed wing of these groups that resort to irregular warfare to achieve their goals. The use of the 1st Cavalry Paratrooper Squadron, a pacification force reserve unit, in patrolling the entire Area of Operations kept the reserve ready to operate in all sectors with adequate knowledge of both the physical and human terrains, and high capability for quick response. The use of trail motorbikes manned by a driver and shooter, and equipped with GoPro-type tactical cameras, significantly increased mobility and reconnaissance capability in an urban environment dominated by narrow streets and alleys. 16 U.S. Department of the Army. Field Manual 3-24. Counterinsurgency. Washington, D.C., 2006. pp. 1-13. One of the greatest challenges is interagency operations, which, in spite of requiring a united effort, cannot dispense with command unity inside the Area of Operations where security forces are subject to a single military authority – the pacification force commander. The pacification force commander, the information operations officer, and the social communications officer participated in a weekly local community radio program through which they had live interaction with listeners, answering questions and informing them about the peace force’s activities in order to gain the confidence and support of the local population and the public opinion. Winning hearts and minds is absolutely critical in pacification operations. It’s important to note that the first operational programs of the Brazilian Army – the precursor to paratrooper, special operations, and commando actions – originated in the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade in the 1950s and ‘60s. In addition, the Jungle Warfare Training Center (CIGS, for its Portuguese acronym) was created in 1964, and the Special Training Section at the Agulhas Negras Military Academy (AMAN, for its Portuguese acronym), in 1967, both with the participation of paratrooper officers as instructors. Because of this, the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade can be considered the Brazilian Army’s special operations pioneer, particularly with regard to tactics, techniques, and procedures for counterinsurgency operations, which were then conveyed to the rest of the ground forces. In operations against irregular forces, the results are not measured by the number of insurgents killed or captured. The same applies to peace operations, in which the number of arrests and seizures of guns, drugs, and stolen vehicles are only indicators of the actions taken. The success of the pacification operation in the Maré slum led by the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade in April and May of 2014 was the result of the paratrooper Soldier’s boldness, courage, determination, and drive; the commanders’ initiative and leadership at all levels; and the unit’s cohesion and training, which, since its successful operations against the events during the 1960s and 70s, has been recognized as the elite combat force against irregular forces. The use of the tracked M113 VBTPs and modern, Brazilian-made 6×6 GUARANIs, in addition to the URUTU VBTPs, was a major development. In this operational environment of slums, there is severe vulnerability to snipers, given the existence of so many slabs on top of the buildings. What’s more, vehicles equipped with on-board GPS help with orientation and enhance situational awareness. 13 Scouts work as informants for the criminal gangs; they are usually minors, paid by drug traffickers to convey information by radio and mobile phones. In addition to its organic units and subunits, the modular structure of an infantry brigade employed as a peace force should include infantry and/or cavalry brigades on wheeled or tracked vehicles; a special operations task force with Special Forces, commandos, snipers, information support operations, and vanguard paratrooper detachments; an expanded intelligence section with an organic intelligence operations group that has significant analytical capacity and is specially structured around human sources and signals; a military police company; an administrative support detachment with a reinforced procurement, bidding, and contract section; a military police company or battalion under operational control; specialist cells for civil affairs, information operations, social communications, civil-military cooperation, legal assistance, electronic warfare and cyber warfare; teams of civilians with expertise in the human terrain specific to the mission; and means of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance –particularly helicopters equipped with Eagle Eye systems, remotely piloted aircraft systems, tactical cameras for individual soldiers and ground sensors, all with detection and night vision capability. After two months of the peace force’s activity in Maré, it was confirmed that the desired end state was partially achieved and the environment became relatively safe and stable in comparison to the situation at the beginning of the operation. As a consequence, the minimum security conditions were already in place for the State Government of Rio de Janeiro to put UPPs into place. By Dialogo November 11, 2015 Hail! Hail! The BRAZILIAN ARMED FORCES HAS AND WILL ALWAYS GUARANTEE DEMOCRACY IN BRAZIL. the fight against drug trafficking â€“ branch of international crime requires not only military efforts, intelligence or police repression, but also political, economic and above social solutions. The destruction of the environment, the pressure from demographics on the cities, the collapse of services and the uncontrolled population explosion are threats to national security. Weapons control, carrying, selling or trafficking without any controls is also a lethal weapon against the established order. Unemployment, hunger, extreme poverty and a lack of opportunities for youth in education, sports and culture also gives criminal groups an advantage in their continuous efforts to recruit new troops for their ranks. Reforms in the armed bodies of intelligence and security are also a key piece in order to contain crime in all its expressions and manifestations. Pay the forces of order, security, defense and intelligence well, with backing from the judicial system, are also weapons to dissuade international crime, ok There ought to be a federal, state, and municipal meeting there. You know? That’s my tip. Full-spectrum operations, especially operations against irregular forces, with a greater focus on antiterrorism and counterinsurgency, have received great emphasis in training Brazilian paratroopers. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, Operation Saci, a traditional exercise in the advanced training program, was planned and executed with troops within a framework of asymmetrical, irregular, extra-regional conflict, in which the Brigade was part of the military force of a multinational coalition and began its strategic deployment through an air-ground incursion into the Area of Operations. The increased degree of accuracy of a shooter equipped with holographic sight and night vision scopes and goggles, in addition to the use of 5.56 mm caliber weapons, such as the new Brazilian IMBEL IA2 assault rifle, increased the troops’ combat power and reduced the risk of undesirable collateral damage to the population. 19 BRASIL Estado-Maior do Exército. Manual de Campanha EB20-MC-10.213. “Operações de Informação” . 1. ed., 2014. pp. 2-6, par. 2.3.4. Maneuvers TROOP PREPARATION Violent extremist groups linked to criminal organizations, such as the FARC, Shining Path, Paraguayan People’s Army (EPP), and Hezbollah are active in bordering countries and constitute a threat to peace and national security by violating our borders and smuggling and trafficking in arms, drugs, and people, or, in the worst-case scenario, by carrying out terrorist acts inside Brazilian territory. The current situation underscores the importance of preparing infantry brigades for special operations against irregular forces. This type of operation uses large numbers of troops. Although the requirements may vary according to the operational environment and circumstances, as a rule of thumb, based on the average number of troops deployed in the first year of eight robust peace-enforcement operations 1 4, the operation needs 13 members of the security forces (military, police, and other similar institutions) for every 1,000 inhabitants 1 5 in order to be successful. The U.S. Army’s Counterinsurgency Operations Manual, also based on historical data, set the effective number at 20 to 25 Soldiers for every 1,000 inhabitants 1 6. The Pacification Force in Maré employed 18 Soldiers for every 1,000 inhabitants – a number that is compatible with the nature of the mission. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The desired end was to gain the active support of the population and to dismantle the criminal gangs in the center of the operation. This would help ensure a secure and stable environment (strategic objective) and create adequate conditions for the installation of UPPs in the Maré Area of Operations (political objective). Another strong indication of the association of organized crime and drug trafficking with groups of violent extremists is that in April 2001, drug trafficker and Red Command leader Luiz Fernando da Costa, better known as Fernandinho Beira-Mar, was arrested in Colombia where, according to investigations, he was negotiating an exchange of weapons for cocaine with Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrillas 4. The most important result in the pacification of the Maré complex was to achieve the desired end state – winning the population’s active support and dismantling criminal gangs – and the operation’s strategic and political objectives – ensuring a secure and stable environment and creating the right conditions for establishing UPPs. BRAZIL ABOVE ALL! (Motto of the Brazilian Army’s Paratrooper Unit) 1 MANWARING, Max G. Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, March 2005. Another very effective indirect action was the DOAI’s work in disseminating messages through loudspeakers and flyers. During the mission, the lightweight vehicle equipped with loudspeakers had to be replaced by an armored personnel carrier (VBTP, for its Portuguese acronym) because the gangs frequently shot at it. According to Mark Moyar (Ph.D. in History), from the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU), “…in achieving stability, Village Stability Operations (VSO) demonstrated convincingly the value of the indirect approach as a necessary complement to direct action.” 1 8 Currently, irregular asymmetric conflicts present the greatest threat to international peace and security. Taking advantage of Brazil’s successful experience in operations against irregular forces, it becomes increasingly important to revise and update the campaign manuals that guide the organization, preparation, and employment of infantry brigades in these. In the 1960s and ’70s, for example, the Brazilian Army fought and defeated subversive and urban and rural terrorism without the presence of foreign troops or advisers in its territory. Other noteworthy sources for consultation are U.S. Army FM 3-24 ( Counterinsurgency), FM 3-24.2 ( Tactics in Counterinsurgency), and FM 3-06 ( Urban Operations) manuals, which together present lessons learned and valuable up-to-date doctrinal aspects about this type of operation. The Brazilian Army’s new manual for pacification operations (EB20-MC-10,217) establishes three stages for the use of ground forces in this type of operations: intervention, stabilization, and normalization (clear, hold and build phases 8). The intervention phase is mainly focused on enforcement actions in urban or rural environments. In the stabilization phase, there is a balance between enforcement and constructive actions, while the normalization phase is dominated by constructive actions for the development of an environment conducive to reestablishing state control over the pacification area 9. 6 Ibid. 15 DOBBINS, James et al. The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building. RAND Corporation, 2007. p. 41. 21 PINHEIRO, Gen Bda Alvaro de Souza. “As Ambiguidades Estratégicas da Violência Extremista e do Conflito Irregular Assimétrico do Século 21.” Estado-Maior do Exército. Doutrina Militar Terrestre em revista. 3rd. ed., July to Sept., 2013. p. 46. OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE OPERATION The choice of public support as the center of gravity means that the pacification force emphasized operations focused on the population (population-centric operations), in which the study and use of the human terrain is predominant over the physical terrain. Among the factors in decision-making, the civilian considerations had very high priority. In addition, the intelligence operations were not limited to information about the opposing forces, as occurs in conventional conflicts between state actors. The intelligence also prioritized the collection and pursuit of information about the population – the center of gravity in irregular, asymmetric conflicts in the 21st century. According to Gen. Stanley McChrystal, Commander of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan from 2009 to 2010, “Protecting the people is the mission. The conflict will be won by persuading the population, not by destroying the enemy.” 7 11 FLYNN, Michael T. et al. Fixing Intel: A Blueprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan. Center for a New American Security. January, 2010. 12 FERREIRA, Cap Inf Alexandre da Silva. “O Emprego da Célula de Inteligência da SU Durante as Operações da Força de Pacificação Maré.” Award-winning work in the literary competition of the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade’s Airborne Operations Symposium. 2014. p. 3. In Brazil today, the Armed Forces, mainly the Brazilian Army, play a leading role and not just a supportive one in the successful pacification of slums that were once completely dominated by drug trafficking. This demonstrates without a doubt that this has ceased to be an issue of security and public order and become one of national security 2 1. 14 The eight peace-enforcement operations were: Japan (1945), Somalia (1992), Haiti (1994), Bosnia (1995), Eastern Slovenia (1996), East Timor (1999), Kosovo (2000) and Iraq (2003). 7 WEST, Bing. The Wrong War: Grit, Strategy and the Way Out of Afghanistan. Random House, Inc., New York, 2011. p. 110. 2 PINHEIRO, Gen Bda Alvaro de Souza. “As Ambiguidades Estratégicas da Violência Extremista e do Conflito Irregular Assimétrico do Século 21.” Estado-Maior do Exército. Doutrina Militar Terrestre em revista. 3rd. ed., July to Sept., 2013. p. 45. 5 Ibid. 18 MOYAR, Mark. Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) Report 14-7. Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Police. October 2014. p. 86. In 2011, after the start of pacification operations in the Alemão and Penha slum complexes, the CIE included guidelines for the formation and operation of company-level intelligence cells 1 0 in the preparation of its contingencies, incorporating the lessons learned from the U.S. Army and Marine Corps in the war in Afghanistan 1 1. 20 MANSOOR, Peter R. “Bagdá ao Alvorecer: A Guerra de um Comandante no Iraque ”. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército, 2011. p. 392. While IMINT and SIGINT have been very important, there is no substitute for human intelligence (HUMINT) obtained through daily contact with the local population. To achieve this, the population of Maré had to feel safe enough to provide information without fear of reprisals from the traffickers or militias. The key to this was to treat the local population with dignity and respect within legal and human rights provisions with the aim of mitigating the negative reactions resulting from sweep (exploratory action) and search and seizure (directed action) operations. *Brigadier General Roberto Escoto currently serves on the Army’s General Staff. He graduated as an infantry officer from the Agulhas Negras Military Academy (AMAN) in 1982, and took paratrooper, master jumping, skydiving, commandos, and Special Forces courses. He holds a master’s degree in international relations from the University of Brasília, and served as a special operations advisor in Paraguay, military observer during the peace mission in Ecuador and Peru (MOMEP), operations officer of the Brazilian contingent in the UN peace keeping mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), head of the Brazilian Army Commission in Washington and liaison officer to the UN’s Department of Peace Keeping Operations in New York. He commanded the Army’s 6th Battalion of Light Airborne Infantry from 2003 to 2004, and the Paratrooper Infantry Brigade from 2012 to 2014.
by: Casey BondMost financial planners have no interest in working with millennial clients, according to a recent survey by a consulting firm called Corporate Insight. In fact, the survey of 500 advisors found just 30 percent are attempting to gain clients under age 40.The reason: millennials, for the most part, don’t have any money. And financial planners make their living by advising wealthy clients.Well guess what, guys? We’re not exactly keen on you either. Here’s why.1. The Financial Industry’s ReputationMillennials are a skeptical bunch in general, but no industry has felt their collective distrust as heavily as the financial services sector. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, movements such as Occupy Wall Street and Bank Transfer Day made it clear generation Y has little faith in the people who manage our nation’s money. continue reading » 6SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Andrea Ammon, who chairs the ECDC, told Reuters there was still no evidence to show what proportion of cases were spread by aerosols rather than droplets, but “we know both are a possibility”.Last week, the WHO said the virus could spread through aerosols, although it stopped short of saying this had been confirmed. The global health body had come under pressure from scientists, who wrote a letter calling on it to acknowledge the potential for airborne spread.Ammon said the ECDC was assessing risks in the workplace, which would be heightened by airborne transmission, after several localized outbreaks in plants throughout Europe, with the most serious in a slaughterhouse in Germany in June.”We are working on a technical report on occupational settings and risk factors for such outbreaks,” she said, adding dangers posed by ventilation systems were being assessed.Many of the social distancing and hygiene guidelines that countries have adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic are based on preventing contact with droplets of saliva or mucous expelled by carriers of the virus when they cough, sneeze or speak. Preventing airborne spread could require other strategies.Ammon said the ECDC still assumes droplets are the most common vehicle of transmission. She said there was no need at this stage to update the agency’s guidance, and reiterated that it was crucial that people continue to respect social distancing rules and wear face masks. The EU’s public health body is assessing risks posed by ventilation systems and other settings at workplaces for the transmission of the novel coronavirus through the air, in addition to through droplets, its head said.The announcement by the European Centre for Disease Prevention (ECDP) could show a commitment tackling the potential spread through fine airborne mists known as aerosols, which the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged as a possible danger only last week.While the virus is believed to spread mainly through contaminated droplets, Europe’s ECDC has long warned it might also spread through the air in mists. That could pose extra risk in enclosed spaces, especially with poor ventilation, risks that could rise in winter as people spend more time indoors. Topics :
As the bus reached Kuripan village, it crashed into two more motorcycles and a microbus, before falling into a ditch, he added.Read also: Four dead, 11 injured in three-vehicle crash on Cipali toll roadThe four fatalities were the bus driver, Zaenal Abidin, 44, who was resident of Jepara regency; Sri Dewi Rejeki, 34, from Temanggung regency; Pujiyanto, 30, from Wonosobo and Saranta, 61, also from Wonosobo.The fifteen injured victims were rushed to the Wonosobo Regional Hospital and the Kejajar community health center (Puskermas).Fankky said the Dieng-Wonosobo route was not suitable for large buses. He appealed to road users to remain vigilant when driving on the Wonosobo road, since it had many descents and inclines. (syk)Topics : A tourist bus crashed into several cars and motorcycles on the road between the Dieng plateau and Wonosobo in Kuripan village, Garung district, Wonosobo regency, Central Java, on Wednesday afternoon, leaving four people dead and 15 injured.Wonosobo Police chief Adj. Sr. Comr. Fankky Ani Sugiharto said the bus had been carrying 31 passengers from the Bhakti Praja Jepara High School reunion group.The bus reportedly spun out of control due to malfunctioning brakes when reaching Buntu village and crashed into two motorcycles and a car, Fankky said on Wednesday evening as reported by tempo.co.
Round-Up, Substance Use Disorder, The Blog Yesterday, Governor Wolf made stops in western PA to discuss efforts to continue the fight against the epidemic of opioid abuse in the Commonwealth.In Pittsburgh, Governor Wolf and former Pittsburgh Steeler Franco Harris hosted a press conference to discuss the Wolf Administration’s new opioid prescribing guideline recommendations for orthopedics and sports medicine.“These new guidelines are a crucial part of our battle against the opioid crisis in Pennsylvania,” said Governor Wolf. “By partnering with health care professionals in the fields of orthopedics and sports medicine to reduce the overprescribing of opioid painkillers, we are working to reduce opioid abuse in one of the highest-risk groups – people who seek medical care due to injuries.”In the afternoon, the governor was in Ebensburg, Cambria County to host a roundtable discussion on opioid abuse in local communities. The discussion was attended by local leaders and law enforcement and focused on their perspectives to best continue the fight against opioid abuse.Combatting the opioid abuse epidemic continues to be a top priority for Governor Wolf and his administration.“Since becoming Governor, I’ve travelled around the commonwealth hearing stories from parents, friends, first responders, and community members about their firsthand experience with people who have fallen prey to this crisis,” said Governor Wolf. “We must continue to use every tool in our tool box to combat this crisis, and help those who are suffering from substance use disorders.”Take a look at the coverage below: Post-Gazette: Opioid addiction is a problem for athletes, and Pennsylvania has a planGov. Tom Wolf, flanked by Pro Football Hall of Famer Franco Harris and some of the leading doctors in the state, announced new guidelines Thursday meant to combat the number of overdose deaths from opioids that continue to escalate across the state. “This is a really important issue,” Wolf said Thursday at a news conference at UPMC Montefiore, spelling out the Pennsylvania Orthopedic Society’s guidelines for opioid prescriptions. “I’m not sure there is anyone in Pennsylvania who hasn’t known someone with an opioid addiction.”Tribune Democrat: WATCH VIDEO: ‘Take back our community’: Wolf, local leaders discuss opioid crisisGov. Tom Wolf sat down with a packed room of Cambria County leaders Thursday and started a roundtable discussion with a simple question about broad, far-reaching problem. “What can we at the state level do to help you battle this (opioid) epidemic?” he asked. During a 30-minute meeting inside a Central Cambria High School classroom, Cambria County elected officials, law enforcement officers and educators from the county’s rural central region had no shortage of suggestions.Altoona Mirror: Opioids focus of Wolf meetingCambria County Coroner Jeff Lees told Gov. Tom Wolf that when he talks to families of overdose victims, he learns they became addicted at a young age. Last year Wolf signed laws limiting the amount of prescription opioids prescribed to children because research has found abuse of prescription opioids leads to heroin addiction. That’s one of the actions being taken to address Pennsylvania’s opioid problem that kills hundreds in Pennsylvania each year.Associated Press: State’s orthopedic doctors introduce new opioid guidelinesDemocratic Governor Tom Wolf was at UPMC Montefiore in Pittsburgh on Thursday for the announcement of the new standards, which were designed to curb abuse of the powerful painkillers. Like Governor Tom Wolf on Facebook: Facebook.com/GovernorWolf By: Eryn Spangler, Press Assistant SHARE TWEET SHARE Email Facebook Twitter Governor Wolf Stops in Western PA to Discuss Combatting Opioid Abuse (Round-Up) March 17, 2017
Huntington Residences’ bathroom finishes.“It’s great to see activity in our area and from a rental point of view, average days vacant has been less than seven days,” he said.Mr Tutt said feedback from the residents who had already moved in was that they loved the space and design.“We put a lot of effort into the design on this particular project and worked with our architects, Red Door Architecture, and also our interior designer 26 Street Design,” he said.“We worked to make sure we added something different to the market place. One of the courtyards at the Lutwyche complex.“In particular working on our facades and ensuring the street appeal of the project stood out from everything else in the marketplace. Urbis’s Outlook Lutwyche — A Context on Business, Culture, Lifestyle and Residential forecasts the suburb to leverage off the significant amount of current and future infrastructure investment occurring in the inner north Brisbane suburb. >>FOLLOW EMILY BLACK ON FACEBOOK<< “Supported by a strong public transport network, Lutwyche is strategically positioned within close proximity to a number of Brisbane’s largest employment nodes,” the report stated. The completed development at Lutwyche. A pleasant outlook from one of the apartments.“There’s been a lot of homogenous stock development in that marketplace over the years and we decided to come in there and really raise the bar. “If you stand in front of our building, and then look at other buildings in the market place, it definitely has a much more eye-catching design to it.” Residents have started to move into Tessa Development’s latest project, Huntington Residences, at Lutwyche.Buyers seeking to secure a two-bedroom apartment in Lutwyche have a choice of only eight remaining in Tessa Development’s latest residential project Huntington Residences. Kitchen finishes in the Lytwyche building.“It’s literally about 60m away, it’s one of the major bus interchanges in Brisbane,” he said.“Also, the locality to Kedron Brook and being on the Wilston side of Lutwyche Rd is very much a desirable location. “The current $60 million upgrade of Lutwyche Shopping Centre has been of a huge benefit to us. We’ve seen a lot of buyers just locally because of that.”Mr Tutt said residents had already started to move into the 29-apartment ”boutique’’ development. An entertaining deck at Huntington Residences.Tessa Developments managing director Brendan Tutt said the proximity of the Lutwyche bus interchange was one of the most important factors surrounding the success of the development.More from newsParks and wildlife the new lust-haves post coronavirus17 hours agoNoosa’s best beachfront penthouse is about to hit the market17 hours ago
The uncertainties surrounding the development and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected LNG prices globally. The Asian benchmark prices (“JKM”) averaged 3.23 $/MMBtu in the first quarter of 2020, compared to 5.3 $/MMBtu for the same period last year. Flex LNG also reported a revenue of $38.2 million for the first quarter of 2020, which compares to $52 million for the previous quarter. The severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated demand is difficult to predict, but it’s reasonable to assume that energy demand will pick up again once the pandemic is under control. There is also a political impetus to support cleaner energy sources post COVID-19, which means that the long term positive outlook for the LNG industry remains. Courtesy of Flex LNG Commenting on the quarter, Flex CEO Øystein Kalleklev said, “the LNG market has been very challenging this year due to another mild winter and the global COVID-19 pandemic. We have witnessed unprecedented demand destruction due to shut-downs of all major economies and more specifically shut-ins of cargoes due to historically low gas prices. These factors have adversely affected the demand for shipping and thus consequently freight rate levels”. Average time charter equivalent (TCE) rate of $67,740 per day for the first quarter of 2020, compared to $94,000 per day for the fourth quarter of 2019. The company reported a $14.9 million loss in the first quarter of the year, compared to a net income of $23.9 million in the previous quarter. Average European LNG prices came in at 2.77 $/MMBtu in the first quarter of 2020, compared to 5.14 $/MMBtu for the same period last year. The low LNG price environment poses a challenge for the trade of uncontracted volumes and the economics in floating price contracts. A significant portion of floating price contracts are linked to crude oil prices. The severe correction in crude oil prices during the first quarter may affect end-user demand as local gas prices in key markets will fall. Looking at large importing regions such as Asia and Europe, industry sources report of a healthy year on year import growth numbers of 16 percent and 30 percent respectively, compared to the first quarter 2019, partly driven by European buyers increasing their storage levels. Flex LNG, the company controlled by billionaire John Fredriksen and an emerging player in the LNG shipping business, slipped into the red in the first quarter.
Cristiano Ronaldo fired reigning Serie A champions Juventus four points clear at the top of the table with a brace in a 2-1 win at home to Parma.Juve were given an unexpected boost in the title race earlier on Sunday when Inter were held 1-1 at Lecce, and Ronaldo ensured his side took full advantage. Andreas Cornelius outjumped Ronaldo for an unlikely equaliser, yet revenge was swift for the five-time Ballon d’Or winner, a second goal soon sealing victory for the leaders.Alex Sandro headed just over from an early corner, but the left-back had to be replaced by Danilo after 21 minutes as Juve struggled to get into their stride. Ronaldo worked room for a shot on the right-hand side of the area, drawing a good save from Luigi Sepe that prompted another corner from which the Juve number seven wastefully missed the target.The former Real Madrid superstar continued to provide the Bianconeri’s chief threat and forged the breakthrough two minutes before half-time, cutting inside from the left to shoot hard and low, his effort taking a deflection that wrongfooted Sepe and nestled in the net.Aaron Ramsey drilled agonisingly wide before the break, while only a superb one-handed Sepe stop denied Danilo from 20 yards following the restart.It was a Parma substitute who scored the next goal, however, Cornelius – on for Roberto Inglese moments after the opener – rising above Ronaldo from a right-wing corner to nod in a towering header.A typically inspirational two-goal turn from Cristiano Ronaldo saw Juventus open up a four-point gap to Inter at the top of Serie A.Read Also:Juventus to offer player-plus-cash deal for Paul PogbaBut Ronaldo’s response was ruthless, meeting Paulo Dybala’s cutback with a clinical first-time finish just three minutes later to clinch the points.He might have completed his hat-trick in the closing minutes, but Sepe blocked a strike from the right before a header from the consequent corner looped over, and a curled strike from the left drifted wide. Promoted ContentTop 7 Best Car Manufacturers Of All TimeThe Best Cars Of All Time10 Extremely Dirty Seas In The World9 Actors Who Stay Famous For That One Movie They Did 10 Years Ago13 kids at weddings who just don’t give a hoot6 Incredibly Strange Facts About Hurricanes7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend BetterCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable WayPortuguese Street Artist Creates Hyper-Realistic 3D GraffitiBest Car Manufacturers In The World10 Legendary Movies To Learn History FromThe 10 Best Secondary Education Systems In The World Loading… FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Maurizio Sarri’s men were not wholly convincing but, in the Portuguese, had the game’s outstanding player, who opened the scoring late in the first half.
Indianapolis, In. — The DNR is seeking people to participate in training on July 11 to become a coordinator for the Community Hunting Access Program (CHAP).CHAP is an initiative through the DNR Division of Fish & Wildlife to increase hunting opportunities for deer in urban and suburban areas. Doing so can help alleviate human-deer conflicts. CHAP provides community partners with financial and technical assistance to administer hunting programs in their communities.As part of the program, managed hunts are administered by a certified CHAP coordinator trained in hunting safety, deer biology and public relations. The community partner determines when and where managed hunts occur, what hunters can participate, and which certified CHAP coordinator they use or contract.Training for people interested in becoming a certified CHAP coordinator will take place on July 11. Before attending training, those interested in becoming a CHAP coordinator must complete the following prerequisites:1) Any state-sponsored Hunter Education certification.2) Any DFW-Approved Firearms Instructor Training. Examples include: National Rifle Association (NRA) Firearm Instructor Training, Indiana Hunter Education Instructor Academy, 4-H Shooting Sports Instructor Certification, etc.3) Any DFW-Approved Formal Deer Hunting Training. Examples include: NRA Hunter Clinic Instructor Program Certification, QDMA Deer Steward 1 Certification, etc.4) Provide name and birthdate for routine DNR background check.To sign up for coordinator training, or for questions regarding prerequisites, email south region urban biologist Megan Dillon at mdillon@dnr.IN.gov.