Conventional bombs On March 9-10, 1945, US warplanes carry out massive firebombing attacks on Tokyo and other major Japanese cities. Around 100,000 people die in the capital alone. Hiroshima and Nagasaki On August 6 the US B-29 bomber “Enola Gay” drops a 9,000-pound atomic bomb over Hiroshima at 8:15 am, killing 140,000 people by the end of December, according to a widely accepted toll. Truman tells Japanese leaders that if they do not surrender “they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this Earth”.On August 8, the Soviet Union declares war on Japan.On August 9, a second atomic bomb explodes over Nagasaki at 11:02 am, killing 74,000 people.On August 15, Japanese Emperor Hirohito tells his nation it has lost the war. He remains on the throne during post-war reconstruction of the country. Allied ultimatum On July 26, in the Potsdam Declaration, Britain, China and the United States warn Japan that it must surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction”. Japan decides to “ignore” the ultimatum, although the word used – — mokusatsu — also translates as “no comment”. German surrender On May 8, Germany surrenders, but fighting continues in Asia and the Pacific. Potential targets Around spring 1945, possible targets are evaluated and a list drawn up of Japanese cities that could be hit with an atomic bomb. At the top of the list is Japan’s seventh-largest city, Hiroshima. Kyoto is rejected as a target owing largely to its historic and cultural importance. Einstein warning Pearl Harbor On December 7, 1941, Japanese warplanes destroy much of the US Pacific fleet based at Pearl Harbor. The next day, the United States enters World War II. Topics : First American test Between May and July, components of the atomic bombs are shipped to Tinian, an island in the Marianas chain from where B-29 bombers are able to reach Japan.On July 16, at 5:30 am, the “Trinity” test takes place near Alamogordo, New Mexico, demonstrating the awesome power of an atomic bomb and marking the dawn of the nuclear age.On July 25, Truman agrees to a mission to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. It included approval to drop additional bombs as soon as they became available. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki capped six years of top-secret work by scientists from Europe and North America. Here is an overview of how that process unfolded. In 1939, Albert Einstein signs a letter warning US president Franklin D. Roosevelt of the destructive potential of nuclear fission, which was discovered by the German chemist Otto Hahn. The letter says the process could result in “extremely powerful bombs of a new type”. Roosevelt creates the Advisory Body on Uranium. Battle of Okinawa On March 26, the battle of Okinawa begins. More than 100,000 Japanese soldiers and a similar number of civilians die over the next three months, while 12,000 US soldiers are also killed. The battle is used by US officials to justify using atomic bombs, since an invasion of mainland Japan is forecast to result in an even higher cost.On April 12, Roosevelt dies and Harry Truman becomes president of the United States and learns of the “Manhattan Project”. First Soviet bomb On August 29, 1949, four years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki are destroyed, the Soviet Union successfully tests its own atomic bomb in Kazakhstan and becomes the world’s second nuclear power. The Manhattan Project In August 1942, the US officially launches a top-secret program to develop an atomic bomb. The project, which had been approved the previous year, comes to be known as the “Manhattan Project”. Approximately two billion dollars are spent to achieve its goal.In 1943, Robert Oppenheimer is named scientific director of a secret lab at Los Alamos, New Mexico that is to build the bomb. The project includes top physicists from the US, Britain and Canada, in addition to several who fled the Nazi occupation of their homelands in Europe.
Topics : Facebook Inc identified an “uptick” in content related to the far-right Proud Boys on Wednesday, after President Donald Trump declined to condemn the group during Tuesday night’s presidential debate, a company executive said on Twitter.The content included memes featuring Trump’s instructions to the group to “stand back and stand by,” said Brian Fishman, who directs Facebook’s team handling counterterrorism and dangerous organizations.During the debate, Trump deflected an opportunity to denounce “white supremacists and militia groups” amid violence that has marred some protests against racism and police brutality in multiple U.S. cities. “Proud Boys, stand back and stand by,” Trump said, before immediately pivoting: “But I’ll tell you what, somebody’s got to do something about antifa,” he said, referencing the largely unstructured, anti-fascist movement that broadly aims to confront those it views as authoritarian or racist.Extremism experts warned the president’s response could embolden Proud Boys supporters, who promptly circulated memes quoting the president’s words on various social networks.Most of the content Facebook identified on Wednesday condemned the Proud Boys and Trump’s comments about them, but the company was removing any posts it found that praised the group, Fishman said.In 2018, Facebook banned the Proud Boys, which the Southern Poverty Law Center classifies as a hate group, and it has removed three networks of related accounts and content this year. Still, the world’s biggest social network failed to catch organizers publicizing a rally in Portland earlier this month, which went on for weeks before it was spotted by the Tech Transparency Project, an outside watchdog group.On Wednesday, Trump supporters in Facebook Groups – which the company has promoted heavily this year, despite concerns about the difficulty of moderating those spaces – defended the Proud Boys and accused left-wing protesters of being “domestic terrorists.”One member of the 30,000-member Trump Train MAGA Group called the Proud Boys “hardcore patriotic Americans.”On Facebook, a group called Refuse Fascism that organizes nationwide protests characterized the president’s words as “bullying, lie-filled fascist assault” and accused the Proud Boys of being “fascist thugs.”
Palm Lake Resort Beachmere Bay is going Hampton’s style.The development will have 291 homes, all with two bedrooms, an activity room and a double garage. More from newsMould, age, not enough to stop 17 bidders fighting for this home2 hours agoBuyers ‘crazy’ not to take govt freebies, says 28-yr-old investor2 hours agoPrices start from $455,000, with all homes including solar panels, Smeg appliances, immaculately landscaped gardens, window furnishings, luxury flooring and emergency alert buttons.Construction will soon be starting on the Hamptons Country Club, which will include ten-pinbowling, cinema, indoor & outdoor pools, library, Milon gym, craft and billiards.Development approval has also been received for a 102-bed aged care facility due to start construction next year.Residents will also share existing facilities at the adjoining Palm Lake Resort Beachmere Sands,which has 182 occupied villas. Those facilities include caravan storage & a wash bay, resident workshop, a golf course, dog run, recreational gardens, tennis courts and waterfront beachside centre.“We are hoping to build a real sense of community amongst the two resorts,” Ms Baldwin said.“One of the wonderful things about Palm Lake Resort is seeing the residents band together as a community. We are excited to see the new friendships that will be built amongst new and existing residents in both of the resorts.”For a limited time when you place a deposit on a home in Beachmere Bay, you will receive a$14,000 luxury inclusions package. Palm Lake Resort Beachmere Bay is embracing a Hampton’s theme with 291 homes, all with two bedrooms, an activity room and a double garage.BEACHMERE is getting a touch of Hamptons luxury with 10 new floorplans being released at Palm Lake Resort’s latest retirement community.Palm Lake Resort Beachmere Bay sales manager Brittany Baldwin said the Hampton theme, which would run throughout the resort, was really taking the resort’s designer lifestyle to the next level.“The development at Palm Lake Resort Beachmere Bay will allow residents to live andbreathe a luxury lifestyle in their retirement,” Ms Baldwin said.“The entire resort will look and feel like it’s been airlifted from the Hamptons and dropped right here in Beachmere.”Launched in May, earthworks and civil works have started at the new Beachmere Bay development, with construction set to start in the coming months.
Varma Mutual Pension Insurance Company – Reima Rytsölä has been appointed as CIO. Rytsölä will take up his new position in April 2014 at the latest. He will report to Varma’s president and chief executive and be a member of the company’s executive group. Rytsölä will join Varma from Pohjola Bank, where he was senior executive vice-president of banking and a member of the group executive committee. Matti Vuoria is president and chief executive of Varma.Henderson Global Investors – Rob Gambi has been appointed CIO, arriving from UBS Global Asset Management, where he was group managing director and global head of fixed income.Fidelity Worldwide Investment – Richard Parkin has been appointed head of retirement as part of the company’s plans to offer a new retirement service to its UK customers. Parkin will take up the role at the end of October.Man Group – Neil Mason has been appointed senior managing director and lead portfolio manager of the Man GLG multi-strategy portfolios. Mason comes from the role of chief risk officer at Harvard Management Company. Before then, he was CIO at FRM Capital Advisors.Liontrust Asset Management – John Husselbee, chief executive of North Investment Partners, and Paul Kim have been recruited to establish a new multi-asset team. Husselbee will join Liontrust along with the North Investment Partners operation before the end of October. Kim will join as senior fund manager. He has had roles at Liverpool Victoria Asset Management, Capel Cure Myers, Sun Life Portfolio Counselling Services (AXA Sun Life) and other firms.Apollo Aviation Management – Pat O’Brien has been elected as an independent director to the board of Apollo, the Irish subsidiary of aviation asset manager Apollo Aviation Group. O’Brien is a former KPMG Partner who specialised in aviation finance and advising international aircraft leasing companies.State Street – José Almeida, chairman, president and chief executive at Covidien, has been appointed to the board of directors at State Street Corporation. Almeida joined Covidien, formerly Tyco Healthcare, in 1995. He is currently on the board of Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed) and Partners in Health.Investcorp – Lionel Erdely has been appointed head of hedge funds and CIO. He joins from Lyxor Asset Management, where he has been CIO since 2004, and chief executive of Lyxor Inc since 2009. National Asset Management Agency, Invesco Perpetual, Dutch Code for Pension Funds, Varma Mutual Pension Insurance Company, Henderson Global investors, Fidelity Worldwide Investment, Man Group, Liontrust Asset Management, Apollo Aviation Management, State Street, InvestcorpNational Asset Management Agency (NAMA) – John Mulcahy, head of asset management at Ireland’s NAMA, will retire at the end of next February and be succeeded by Mary Birmingham, currently a senior asset manager at the agency. Mulcahy has been at NAMA since it was set up in December 2009, starting as head of portfolio management.Invesco Perpetual – Head of UK equities Neil Woodford is to leave at the end of April 2014, after 25 years with the company. He will remain responsible for all funds where he is the named manager through a transition period, the company said. At the end of that, Mark Barnett will be named manager of the High Income and Perpetual Income funds, and then succeed Woodford as head of UK equities. Ciaran Mallon and existing fixed income managers Paul Causer and Paul Read will manage the UK equity components of the Monthly Income Plus and Perpetual Distribution funds with immediate effect.Dutch Code for Pension Funds – Margot Scheltema has been appointed as chair of the five-strong monitoring committee for the new Code for Pension Funds, recently presented by the Dutch Pensions Federation and the Labour Foundation (StAr). Scheltema has ample experience in financial management, gained from national and international positions at energy giant Shell as well as from positions at the Foreign Ministry and the Treasury. Currently, she is on the board as well as on supervisory boards of several companies and institutions in the financial sector. Next year, she will leave the audit committee of the €292bn civil service scheme ABP.
Choi Danielsen said since index provider MSCI launched the ESG Leaders version of its All-Country World Index, the return difference between the ESG-filtered and standard indices had grown to around 20 percentage points in favour of the ESG Leaders.However, stripping out emerging markets from both indices would trim that return premium to just 0.5 percentage points, she said.In emerging markets, Choi Danielsen explained, a high ESG score resulted in a wider return advantage than it did in developed markets, partly because of the greater variation in ESG development which existed in the corporate scenes of emerging markets.The PFA chief strategist said the coronavirus crisis had shifted some of the focus within ESG to social and governance factors, as opposed to the environment factor – which had received most attention before the outbreak.“This is because in times of adversity and when future prospects are uncertain – which has been the case in recent months – the gaze increasingly falls on executive management,” she said.“In this way, the spread of the coronavirus may have contributed to an even greater interest in sustainable investments,” she said.Since COVID-19 hit Italy in late February, Choi Danielsen said the Europe ESG Leaders index had fallen 11.5%, while the standard MSCI Europe index was down 17%.“Companies’ ability to deal with environmental concerns, social responsibility and management must be regarded as important parameters when it comes to achieving success in times of crisis,” she said.This development had also been supported by the fact that the EU’s upcoming recovery fund was expected to have a climate focus, she said.PFA has recently launched its new PFA Climate Plus pension product, which is based on climate-friendly investments. The chief strategist of DKK688bn (€92bn) Danish pension fund PFA has set out a series of arguments to show that investing sustainably does not jeopardise returns, and said firms with top environmental, social, and governance (ESG) credentials outperformed in the worst of the COVID-19 crisis.Tine Choi Danielsen, chief strategist at the Nordic country’s second-biggest pension provider, said: “If you look at the development, there is no doubt that sustainable and responsible companies have performed at least as well as the remaining in the stock market – and in some periods even noticeably better.”She said history, the fund’s own experience and societal trends showed returns on investments were not compromised when investing responsibly and sustainably.In the coronavirus crisis, companies with high environmental, social and governance (ESG) standards outperformed the overall market, and in emerging markets in particular, sustainable companies had returned more than the index over the last few years, she said in a commentary on the commercial mutual provider’s website.
Stuff co.nz 27 February 2015Facebook users who don’t fit any of the site’s 58 gender identity options can now choose how to define themselves freely.The social media giant has added a 59th option: fill in the blank.“Now, if you do not identify with the pre-populated list of gender identities, you are able to add your own,” said a Facebook announcement published online today.Facebook software engineer Ari Chivukula, who identifies as transgender and was part of the team that made the free-form option, thinks the change will lead to more widespread acceptance of people who don’t identify themselves as a man or woman.“We’re hoping this will open up the dialogue,” Chivukula said.Alison CK Fogarty, a gender identity researcher at Stanford University, said giving users control over the words describing their gender is a significant step in social recognition of a growing transgender community, especially coming from the world’s largest social media company.“People are still fighting to make room for gender identity within the socially constructed binary of male and female,” Fogarty said. “Labels and identities are powerful in that they give a sense of community, a way of articulating one’s experience.”In February 2014, Facebook expanded gender identity from male and female to a list of dozens of options, including Androgyne, Gender Fluid, Intersex, Neither and Transgender. Those choices will all still be available.People who choose a custom gender can also choose the pronoun they would like to be referred to publicly: he/his, she/her or they/their.http://www.stuff.co.nz/technology/social-networking/66730356/facebook-adds-fill-in-the-blank-gender-option
“We live in an atmosphere polluted bytoo much verbal violence, too many offensive and harmful words, which areamplified by the internet,” he said. “Today, people insult each other as ifthey were saying ‘Good Day.’” (Reuters) The pope made his appeal to tone thingsdown while speaking to tens of thousands of people in St. Peter’s Square forhis general audience on Ash Wednesday, the start of the 40-day season thatleads up to Easter. Lent, he said in partially improvisedremarks, “is a time to give up useless words, gossip, rumors, tittle-tattle andspeak to God on a first name basis,” he said. VATICAN City – During Lent, Catholicsare called on to give up something, like sweets. On Wednesday, Pope Francisadded a modern twist to the list of things to quit during the season andbeyond: insulting people on social media. Pope Francis waves during the weekly general audience at Vatican, Feb. 26, 2020. REUTERS
John Hartson has apologised to Victor Moses for claiming the Stoke forward cheated to win a penalty in the Potters’ 2-1 Barclays Premier League victory over Swansea last Sunday. However, the matter now appears to have been resolved in a friendly fashion after Stoke revealed Hartson phoned Moses to apologise for his comments. “Stoke City can confirm John Hartson has spoken directly to Victor Moses regarding comments he made on the BBC’s ‘Match of the Day 2’ last weekend,” a statement released on Friday on www.stokecityfc.com said. “Hartson was critical of Moses after the Potters winger was awarded a penalty in last Sunday’s 2-1 home win over Swansea. “Following discussions between the Club and the BBC, Hartson today spoke to Moses to offer apologies for any offence he may have caused.” Moses, who is on a season-long loan at Stoke from parent club Chelsea, is keen to put the matter behind him after speaking to Hartson. “I’m grateful to John for having taken the trouble to ring me to apologise for his comments,” he said. “I’m happy to accept his apology and am now keen to move on.” The FA, meanwhile, has contacted Monk to seek his observations about his post-match comments following Sunday’s match at the Britannia Stadium. Stoke’s equaliser in the Britannia Stadium contest came from a penalty awarded when Moses went to ground – a little easily, it appeared – as he was challenged in the box by Angel Rangel. Potters chairman Peter Coates reportedly made an official complaint to the BBC after Match Of The Day 2 pundit Hartson echoed Swansea boss Garry Monk’s comments that Moses cheated by diving to win the penalty. Press Association
Video showing an out of control American Airlines catering cart at Chicago’s O’Hare Airport is going viral.No injuries were reported after the unmanned cart was seen on Monday spinning around in circles and crashing into a plane parked at a gate.In the video, an airport employee eventually stops the cart by ramming it with another vehicle.American Airlines said they believe an accelerator on the cart got stuck, causing it to lose control.No other information is available.